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Ear


External ear : Consist of pinna, external auditory canal and tympynic membrane (TM) outer surface.
Function : It collect the sound waves n guide them to TM Pathology absence of pinna , shape deformitry, wax stone, canal stenosis, infection of hair in canal, fungal infection
Middle ear : Consist of inner surface of tympanic membrane, middle ear ossicles three in no 1. Malleus 2. Incus 3. Stapes
Function : Sound amplification, size of TM is 8 times bigger than footplate, ossicular chain hanging in middle ear.
Pthology : Middle ear fluid, perforation in ear drum with chronic infection, unsafe ear cholesteatoma, ossicular chain fixation or damage all leading to conductive deafness
Inner ear : Consists organ for heareing called cochlea and balance organ called vestibule

Function : Sound processing by millions of auditory fibers for wide frequency range. Balance by utricle n sacule for lenear Accelaration. Semicircular canals for angular rotational sensation
Pathology : Permanent damage to cochlea due to high sound, infection, aging, by birth lead To sn loss. Dam,age to vestibule lead to imbalance, vertigo
AUDITORY NERVE : Exsits from cochlea joins with balance nerve(vestibular nerve) . travels through internal auditory canal along with facial nerve to enter brain stem.
FACIAL NERVE : It passes from brain – inner ear --middle ear and exit below mastoid bone to give motar supply to face muscle, eyelid muscle, muscle in lips n cheek
Function : Contraction of face muscle, taste sensation to tounge .
Pathology : facial palsy, nerve tumour, damage during surgery.





          Dr. Prashant Manohar kewle © 2014
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